A study of the structure - activity relationships of 5′-O-[N- (salicyl)sulfamoyl]adenosine (6), a potent inhibitor of the bifunctional enzyme salicyl-AMP ligase (MbtA, encoded by the gene Rv2384) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is described, targeting the salicyl moiety. A systematic series of analogues was prepared exploring the importance of substitution at the C-2 position revealing that a hydroxy group is required for optimal activity. Examination of a series of substituted salicyl derivatives indicated that substitution at C-4 was tolerated. Consequently, a series of analogues at this position provided 4-fluoro derivative, which displayed an impressive MIC 99 of 0.098 μM against whole-cell M. tuberculosis under iron-limiting conditions. Examination of other heterocyclic, cycloalkyl, alkyl, and aminoacyl replacements of the salicyl moiety demonstrated that these nonconserative modifications were poorly tolerated, a result consistent with the fairly strict substrate specificities of related non-ribosomal peptide synthetase adenylation enzymes.