4D electron microscopy visualization of anisotropic atomic motions in carbon nanotubes

Sang Tae Park, David J. Flannigan, Ahmed H. Zewail

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


We report the anisotropic atomic expansion dynamics of multi-walled carbon nanotubes, using 4D electron microscopy. From time-resolved diffraction on the picosecond to millisecond scale, following ultrafast heating at the rate of 10 13 K/s, it is shown that nanotubes expand only in the radial (intertubule) direction, whereas no significant change is observed in the intratubular axial or equatorial dimensions. The non-equilibrium heating occurs on an ultrafast time scale, indicating that the anisotropy is the result of an efficient electron-lattice coupling and is maintained up to equilibration. The recovery time, which measures the heat dissipation rate for equilibration, was found to be on the order of ∼100 μs. This recovery is reproduced theoretically by considering the composite specimen-substrate heat exchange.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)9146-9149
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of the American Chemical Society
Issue number22
StatePublished - Jun 6 2012

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2012 American Chemical Society.


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