4-Cyanoindole-2′-deoxyribonucleoside (4CIN): A Universal Fluorescent Nucleoside Analogue

Kellan T. Passow, Daniel A. Harki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


The synthesis and characterization of a universal and fluorescent nucleoside, 4-cyanoindole-2′-deoxyribonucleoside (4CIN), and its incorporation into DNA is described. 4CIN is a highly efficient fluorophore with quantum yields >0.90 in water. When incorporated into duplex DNA, 4CIN pairs equivalently with native nucleobases and has uniquely high quantum yields ranging from 0.15 to 0.31 depending on sequence and hybridization contexts, surpassing that of 2-aminopurine, the prototypical nucleoside fluorophore. 4CIN constitutes a new isomorphic nucleoside for diverse applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4310-4313
Number of pages4
JournalOrganic Letters
Issue number14
StatePublished - Jul 20 2018

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We thank David Cullen (University of Minnesota, UMN) for assistance performing the DNA thermal melting experiments shown in Table S1. This work was supported by NIH R01-GM110129 and R01-GM118000 and a 3M Graduate Research Fellowship to K.T.P. Mass spectrometry was performed at the Analytical Biochemistry Core Facility of the UMN Masonic Cancer Center, which is supported by the NIH (P30-CA77598). Fluorescence lifetime and circular dichroism experiments were performed at the UMN Biophysical Technology Center.

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2018 American Chemical Society.


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