The ability to fully 3D-print active electronic and optoelectronic devices will enable unique device form factors via strategies untethered from conventional microfabrication facilities. Currently, the performance of 3D-printed optoelectronics can suffer from nonuniformities in the solution-deposited active layers and unstable polymer-metal junctions. Here, we demonstrate a multimodal printing methodology that results in fully 3D-printed flexible organic light-emitting diode displays. The electrodes, interconnects, insulation, and encapsulation are all extrusion-printed, while the active layers are spray-printed. Spray printing leads to improved layer uniformity via suppression of directional mass transport in the printed droplets. By exploiting the viscoelastic oxide surface of the printed cathode droplets, a mechanical reconfiguration process is achieved to increase the contact area of the polymer-metal junctions. The uniform cathode array is intimately interfaced with the top interconnects. This hybrid approach creates a fully 3D-printed flexible 8 × 8 display with all pixels turning on successfully.
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