3-D Imaging and Simulation for Nephron Sparing Surgical Training

Hamed Ahmadi, Jen Jane Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Minimally invasive partial nephrectomy (MIPN) is now considered the procedure of choice for small renal masses largely based on functional advantages over traditional open surgery. Lack of haptic feedback, the need for spatial understanding of tumor borders, and advanced operative techniques to minimize ischemia time or achieve zero-ischemia PN are among factors that make MIPN a technically demanding operation with a steep learning curve for inexperienced surgeons. Surgical simulation has emerged as a useful training adjunct in residency programs to facilitate the acquisition of these complex operative skills in the setting of restricted work hours and limited operating room time and autonomy. However, the majority of available surgical simulators focus on basic surgical skills, and procedure-specific simulation is needed for optimal surgical training. Advances in 3-dimensional (3-D) imaging have also enhanced the surgeon’s ability to localize tumors intraoperatively. This article focuses on recent procedure-specific simulation models for laparoscopic and robotic-assisted PN and advanced 3-D imaging techniques as part of pre- and some cases, intraoperative surgical planning.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number58
JournalCurrent Urology Reports
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 1 2016
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


  • 3-D imaging
  • Laparoscopic surgery
  • Minimally invasive surgery
  • Partial nephrectomy
  • Robotic surgery
  • Surgical simulation


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