3-Col problem modelling using simple kernel P systems

Marian Gheorghe, Florentin Ipate, Raluca Lefticaru, Mario J. Pérez-Jiménez, Adrian Ţurcanu, Luis Valencia Cabrera, Manuel García-Quismondo, Laurenţiu Mierlǎ

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This paper presents the newly introduced class of (simple) kernel P systems ((s)kP systems) and investigates through a 3-colouring problem case study the expressive power and efficiency of kernel P systems. It describes two skP systems that model the problem and analyses them in terms of efficiency and complexity. The skP models prove to be more succinct (in terms of number of rules, objects, number of cells and execution steps) than the corresponding tissue P system, available in the literature, that solves the same problem, at the expense of a greater length of the rules.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)816-830
Number of pages15
JournalInternational Journal of Computer Mathematics
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1 2013


  • 3-colour problem
  • formal verification
  • kernel P systems
  • membrane computing
  • tissue P systems

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    Gheorghe, M., Ipate, F., Lefticaru, R., Pérez-Jiménez, M. J., Ţurcanu, A., Valencia Cabrera, L., García-Quismondo, M., & Mierlǎ, L. (2013). 3-Col problem modelling using simple kernel P systems. International Journal of Computer Mathematics, 90(4), 816-830. https://doi.org/10.1080/00207160.2012.743712