Incorporation of 19F into proteins allows for the study of their molecular interactions via NMR. The study of 19F labeled aromatic amino acids has largely focused on 4-,5-, or 6-fluorotryptophan, 4-fluorophenylalanine, (4,5, or 6FW) or 3-fluorotyrosine (3FY), whereas 2-fluorotyrosine (2FY) has remained largely understudied. Here we report a comparative analysis with different fluorinated amino acids. We first report the NMR chemical shift responsiveness of five aromatic amino acid mimics to changes in solvent polarity and find that the most responsive, a mimic of 3FY, has a 2.9-fold greater change in chemical shift compared to the other amino acid mimics in aprotic solvents including the 2FY mimic. We also probed the utility of 2FY for 19F NMR by measuring its NMR relaxation properties in solution and the chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) of a polycrystalline sample of the amino acid by magic angle spinning. Using protein-observed fluorine NMR (PrOF NMR), we compared the influence of 2FY and 3FY incorporation on stability and pKa perturbation when incorporated into the KIX domain of CBP/p300. Lastly, we investigated the 19F NMR response of both 2FY and 3FY-labeled proteins to a protein–protein interaction partner, MLL, and discovered that 2FY can report on allosteric interactions that are not observed with 3FY-labeling in this protein complex. The reduced perturbation to pKa and similar but reduced CSA of 2FY to 3FY supports 2FY as a suitable alternative amino acid for incorporation into large proteins for 19F NMR analysis.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the National Science Foundation (CHE-00038929, CHE-1904071). High resolution solid-state 19 F NMR experiments were carried out at the National High Magnetic Field Lab (NHMFL) supported by the NSF Cooperative agreement No. DMR-1644779 and the State of Florida. NW acknowledges a NSF REU summer fellowship (Grant CHE-1359181).
This work was supported by the National Science Foundation (CHE-00038929, CHE-1904071). High resolution solid-state19F NMR experiments were carried out at the National High Magnetic Field Lab (NHMFL) supported by the NSF Cooperative agreement No. DMR-1644779 and the State of Florida. NW acknowledges a NSF REU summer fellowship (Grant CHE-1359181).
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- F NMR
- Protein-observed NMR
- Protein–protein interactions
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article