The First University of Minnesota-Chinese Academy of Sciences (UMN-CAS) Bilateral Seminar was held on May 27-28, 2014 in China. The stated goals of the Bilateral Seminar were to provide networking opportunities among leading PM2.5 experts at UMN, CAS/Universities in China, and leading global filtration companies, and to identify top emerging areas in PM2.5 science, health effects and control technology for research cooperation among the delegates. Discussion was held regarding the study of indoor air quality and outdoor air pollution. The panel members focused on specific topics that can be addressed in the near term based on the expertise and personnel at hand. The Health Effects Panel recommended that a series of population-based health studies and bench-top mechanistic and animal studies that complemented each other should be conducted to understand the health effects of PM2.5 exposure in China. The group expressed the potential importance of biomarker information that could be useful in understanding potential health repercussions.