One hundred fifteen consecutive patients received first transplants from cadaver donors at the University of Minnesota between January 1, 1968, and May 31, 1973. All patients have been followed for at least two years. The two-year survival rate is 70 per cent and the two-year transplant function rate is 58 per cent. Considerable improvement in both patient survival and transplant function has been noted since 1971. The success of transplantation appears to depend to a large degree on the age of the transplant recipient, the number of HLA antigens matched between donor and recipient, and the dose of antilymphoblast globulin (ALG) administered to the recipient during the first two weeks after transplantation. Each of these factors appears to be important even when the other factors are controlled, and when patients with diabetes, suffering technical failure or hyperacute rejection, are excluded. The results utilizing well-matched cadaver kidneys plus large doses of ALG appear to be equivalent to those obtained with the use of mismatched kidneys from relatives, but further analysis will be required to draw a definite conclusion. Patients receiving poorly-matched cadaver kidneys do far less well than patients receiving mismatched related grafts, however, even when ALG is utilized.