β2-microglobulin, HIV-1 p24 antibody and acid-dissociated HIV-1 p24 antigen levels: Predictive markers tor vertical transmission of HIV-1 in pregnant Ugandan women

J. B. Jackson, P. Kataaha, D. L. Hom, F. Mmiro, L. Guay, C. Ndugwa, L. Marum, E. Piwowar, K. Brewer, G. Toedter, D. Hofheinz, K. Olness

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27 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objectives: To evaluate the clinical utility of plasma β2-microglobulin (β2M) levels, acid-dissociated HIV-1 p24 antigen, and HIV-1 p24-antibody titers in predicting HIV-1 vertical transmission in 227 HIV-1-infected Ugandan pregnant women. Design: Plasma β2M levels, acid-dissociated HIV-1 p24-antigen positivity, and HIV-1 p24-antibody titers were determined using commercial enzyme immunoassays (EIA) in a Ugandan cohort of 52 HIV-1-seropositive transmitting mothers, 175 HIV-1-seropositive non-transmitting mothers, and 52 seronegative mothers within 6 weeks prior to delivery. Results: Transmitter mothers had significantly higher plasma concentrations of β2M (1.80 ± 1.13 mg/l) than non-transmitter seropositive mothers (1.32 ± 0.81 mg/l; P=0.0013). Similarly, a significantly higher proportion of transmitter mothers had detectable p24 antigen than non-transmitter mothers [six out of 51 (11.8%) versus six out of 173 (3.5%); P=0.03]. Compared with the vertical transmission rate of 23% in the seropositive group, the positive predictive values of a β2M level > 1.5 mg/l or detectable HIV-1 p24 antigen for vertical transmission were 34 and 50%, respectively. Five of six (83.3%) seropositive mothers with both a β2M level > 1.5 mg/l and detectable p24 antigenemia transmitted HIV-1 infection to their infants compared with 25 of 124 (20.2%) seropositive mothers with values below the cut-off values for both tests (P=0.00249). However, β2M was not found to be a significant independent predictor of vertical transmission when analyzed in a multivariate model with p24 antigenemia. There was no significant difference in HIV-1 p24-antibody titers in transmitter mothers versus non-transmitter mothers (P=0.299). Conclusion: β2M levels and acid-dissociated HIV-1 p24-antigen assays may be used to predict which HIV-1-infected pregnant women are at greatest risk for vertical transmission. However, only the p24-antigen test was independently predictive of vertical transmission and its clinical utility is limited.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1475-1479
Number of pages5
JournalAIDS
Volume7
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - 1993

Keywords

  • HIV-1
  • P24 antibody
  • P24 antigen
  • Uganda
  • Vertical transmission
  • β-microglobulin

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