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Personal profile

Research interests

I teach a class called "Soccer: Around the World with the Beautiful Game." In this class, we chart the sport’s unlikely rise to global prominence. How did a “kicking game” played in a few English public schools in the mid-nineteenth century go on to become the most popular organized pastime the world has ever known? Part of the answer is easy: kicking a ball around a field with friends is a lot of fun. But there has to be more to it than that – the passion football arouses, the delirious joy and the sickening violence it inspires, the allegiances and communities it builds and breaks, the fortunes it makes and unmakes – why have people all around the world come to care so much about this game? And what, in turn, does this obsessive concern tell us about how the relationship between sports and society, games and culture, has developed in the modern world?

Research interests

  • soccer
  • world cup

Fingerprint The Fingerprint is created by mining the titles and abstracts of the person's research outputs and projects/funding awards to create an index of weighted terms from discipline-specific thesauri.

mercenary Social Sciences
North Africa Social Sciences
thirteenth century Social Sciences
Muslim Social Sciences
soldier Social Sciences
military Social Sciences
prisoner of war Social Sciences
twelfth century Social Sciences

Projects 2009 2012


Research Output 2003 2018


Lower, M. & Shachar, U. Z., Sep 2 2018, In : Al-Masaq. 30, 3, p. 241-247 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalEditorial

Open Access

The tunis crusade of 1270: A mediterranean history

Lower, M., Jan 1 2018, Oxford University Press. 216 p.

Research output: Book/ReportBook

North Africa
state formation
2 Citations (Scopus)

Christian mercenaries in Muslim lands: Their status in medieval Islamic and canon law

Lower, M., Jan 1 2016, The Crusader World. Taylor and Francis, p. 419-433 15 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Islamic Law
3 Citations (Scopus)

The papacy and Christian mercenaries of thirteenth-century North Africa

Lower, M., Jul 2014, In : Speculum. 89, 3, p. 601-631 31 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

thirteenth century
North Africa
prisoner of war
twelfth century

Fellowships, Honors, and Prizes

Institute for Advanced Study Faculty Fellows, Spring 2016

Marc Bellemare (Recipient), Jennifer C Gomez Menjivar (Recipient), Annie Hill (Recipient), Michael Lower (Recipient), William N Salmon (Recipient) & Roozbeh Shirazi (Recipient), Jan 2015

Prize: Fellowship awarded competitively

Institute for Advanced Study Faculty Fellows, Spring 2016

Roozbeh Shirazi (Recipient), Marc Bellemare (Recipient), Jennifer C Gomez Menjivar (Recipient), Annie Hill (Recipient), Michael Lower (Recipient) & William N Salmon (Recipient), Jan 1 2016

Prize: Fellowship awarded competitively