Lee E Frelich

Director, Center for Forest Ecology

1985 …2019
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Research Output 1985 2019

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Article
2019

Monitoring disturbance intervals in forests: a case study of increasing forest disturbance in Minnesota

Wilson, D. C., Morin, R. S., Frelich, L. E. & Ek, A. R., Sep 1 2019, In : Annals of Forest Science. 76, 3, 78.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

forest inventory
case studies
disturbance
monitoring
forest economics
2018
72 Citations (Scopus)

How much does climate change threaten European forest tree species distributions?

Dyderski, M. K., Paz, S., Frelich, L. E. & Jagodzinski, A. M., Mar 1 2018, In : Global Change Biology. 24, 3, p. 1150-1163 14 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Climate change
climate change
Biodiversity
Forestry
Conservation
3 Citations (Scopus)

Imprints of management history on hemiboreal forest ecosystems in the Baltic States

Jõgiste, K., Frelich, L. E., Laarmann, D., Vodde, F., Baders, E., Donis, J., Jansons, A., Kangur, A., Korjus, H., Köster, K., Kusmin, J., Kuuluvainen, T., Marozas, V., Metslaid, M., Metslaid, S., Polyachenko, O., Poska, A., Rebane, S. & Stanturf, J. A., Nov 2018, In : Ecosphere. 9, 11, e02503.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

forest ecosystems
forest ecosystem
history
ordination
deforestation

Interspecific competition limits the realized niche of fraxinus nigra along a waterlogging gradient

Looney, C. E., D’amato, A. W., Fraver, S., Palik, B. J. & Frelich, L. E., Jan 1 2018, In : Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 48, 11, p. 1292-1301 10 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Fraxinus nigra
waterlogging
interspecific competition
flooded conditions
niche
17 Citations (Scopus)

Patterns and drivers of recent disturbances across the temperate forest biome

Sommerfeld, A., Senf, C., Buma, B., D’Amato, A. W., Després, T., Díaz-Hormazábal, I., Fraver, S., Frelich, L. E., Gutiérrez, Á. G., Hart, S. J., Harvey, B. J., He, H. S., Hlásny, T., Holz, A., Kitzberger, T., Kulakowski, D., Lindenmayer, D., Mori, A. S., Müller, J., Paritsis, J. & 6 others, Perry, G. L. W., Stephens, S. L., Svoboda, M., Turner, M. G., Veblen, T. T. & Seidl, R., Dec 1 2018, In : Nature communications. 9, 1, 4355.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Land use
Ecosystem
Remote sensing
disturbances
Climate
1 Citation (Scopus)
Deer
forest inventory
Odocoileus virginianus
deer
Equipment and Supplies
2017
7 Citations (Scopus)
Lakes
temperate forests
temperate forest
boreal forests
boreal forest
40 Citations (Scopus)

The unseen invaders: introduced earthworms as drivers of change in plant communities in North American forests (a meta-analysis)

Craven, D., Thakur, M. P., Cameron, E. K., Frelich, L. E., Beauséjour, R., Blair, R. B., Blossey, B., Burtis, J., Choi, A., Dávalos, A., Fahey, T. J., Fisichelli, N. A., Gibson, K., Handa, I. T., Hopfensperger, K., Loss, S. R., Nuzzo, V., Maerz, J. C., Sackett, T., Scharenbroch, B. C. & 4 others, Smith, S. M., Vellend, M., Umek, L. G. & Eisenhauer, N., Mar 1 2017, In : Global change biology. 23, 3, p. 1065-1074 10 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

meta-analysis
earthworm
plant community
Ecosystems
Functional groups
2015
13 Citations (Scopus)

Impact of wind-induced microsites and disturbance severity on tree regeneration patterns: Results from the first post-storm decade

Vodde, F., Jõgiste, K., Engelhart, J., Frelich, L. E., Moser, W. K., Sims, A. & Metslaid, M., Jul 5 2015, In : Forest Ecology and Management. 348, p. 174-185 12 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

regeneration
disturbance
mortality
Picea abies
Alnus glutinosa
23 Citations (Scopus)

Invasive earthworms interact with abiotic conditions to influence the invasion of common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica)

Roth, A. M., Whitfeld, T. J. S., Lodge, A. G., Eisenhauer, N., Frelich, L. E. & Reich, P. B., May 1 2015, In : Oecologia. 178, 1, p. 219-230 12 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Rhamnus cathartica
earthworms
earthworm
leaf litter
plant litter
5 Citations (Scopus)

Temperature and leaf nitrogen affect performance of plant species at range overlap

Fisichelli, N. A., Stefanski, A., Frelich, L. E., Reich, P. B. & Peters, D. P. C., Oct 1 2015, In : Ecosphere. 6, 10, 186.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

nitrogen
leaves
temperature
Abies balsamea
Acer saccharum
2014
15 Citations (Scopus)

Earthworm invasion alters enchytraeid community composition and individual biomass in northern hardwood forests of North America

Schlaghamerský, J., Eisenhauer, N. & Frelich, L. E., Nov 1 2014, In : Applied Soil Ecology. 83, p. 159-169 11 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Oligochaeta
hardwood forests
North America
earthworms
earthworm
14 Citations (Scopus)

Resident plant diversity and introduced earthworms have contrasting effects on the success of invasive plants

Whitfeld, T. J. S., Roth, A. M., Lodge, A. G., Eisenhauer, N., Frelich, L. E. & Reich, P. B., Sep 1 2014, In : Biological Invasions. 16, 10, p. 2181-2193 13 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

earthworms
earthworm
species diversity
invasibility
plant communities
56 Citations (Scopus)

Temperate tree expansion into adjacent boreal forest patches facilitated by warmer temperatures

Fisichelli, N. A., Frelich, L. E. & Reich, P. B., Feb 1 2014, In : Ecography. 37, 2, p. 152-161 10 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

ecotones
boreal forests
boreal forest
ecotone
regeneration
2013
35 Citations (Scopus)

Climate and interrelated tree regeneration drivers in mixed temperate-boreal forests

Fisichelli, N. A., Frelich, L. E. & Reich, P. B., Jan 1 2013, In : Landscape Ecology. 28, 1, p. 149-159 11 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

temperate forest
boreal forest
understory
regeneration
driver
19 Citations (Scopus)
environmental gradient
biome
prairies
prairie
vegetation
16 Citations (Scopus)

Earthworm invasions in northern hardwood forests: A rapid assessment method

Loss, S. R., Hueffmeier, R. M., Hale, C. M., Host, G. E., Sjerven, G. & Frelich, L. E., Jan 1 2013, In : Natural Areas Journal. 33, 1, p. 21-30 10 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

assessment method
earthworm
forest floor
midden
forest ecosystem
40 Citations (Scopus)

Linking direct and indirect pathways mediating earthworms, deer, and understory composition in Great Lakes forests

Fisichelli, N. A., Frelich, L. E., Reich, P. B. & Eisenhauer, N., Jan 1 2013, In : Biological Invasions. 15, 5, p. 1057-1066 10 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Great Lakes
earthworms
earthworm
deer
understory
2012
2 Citations (Scopus)

First records of parergodrilus heideri (Annelida:Polychaeta) from North America

Schlaghamerský, J. & Frelich, L. E., Sep 26 2012, In : Zootaxa. 3498, p. 81-86 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Annelida
Polychaeta
North America
43 Citations (Scopus)

Interactive effects of global warming and 'global worming' on the initial establishment of native and exotic herbaceous plant species

Eisenhauer, N., Fisichelli, N. A., Frelich, L. E. & Reich, P. B., Jul 1 2012, In : Oikos. 121, 7, p. 1121-1133 13 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

herbaceous plants
earthworms
earthworm
global warming
herb
31 Citations (Scopus)

Leaf Litter Disappearance in Earthworm-Invaded Northern Hardwood Forests: Role of Tree Species and the Chemistry and Diversity of Litter

Holdsworth, A. R., Frelich, L. E. & Reich, P. B., Sep 1 2012, In : Ecosystems. 15, 6, p. 913-926 14 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hardwoods
hardwood forests
leaf litter
earthworms
earthworm
42 Citations (Scopus)

Sapling growth responses to warmer temperatures 'cooled' by browse pressure

Fisichelli, N., Frelich, L. E. & Reich, P. B., Nov 1 2012, In : Global change biology. 18, 11, p. 3455-3463 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

sapling
growth response
temperature
light availability
Temperature
69 Citations (Scopus)

Understorey diversity in southern boreal forests is regulated by productivity and its indirect impacts on resource availability and heterogeneity

Reich, P. B., Frelich, L. E., Voldseth, R. A., Bakken, P. & Adair, E. C., Mar 1 2012, In : Journal of Ecology. 100, 2, p. 539-545 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

resource availability
boreal forests
boreal forest
understory
productivity
2011
51 Citations (Scopus)

Experimental warming induces degradation of a Tibetan alpine meadow through trophic interactions

Li, G., Liu, Y., Frelich, L. E. & Sun, S., Jun 1 2011, In : Journal of Applied Ecology. 48, 3, p. 659-667 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

trophic interaction
meadow
warming
aboveground biomass
rodent
19 Citations (Scopus)
fire severity
overstory
wildfires
boreal forests
wildfire
58 Citations (Scopus)
phenology
flowering
grasslands
grassland
stem
27 Citations (Scopus)

Poor recruitment is changing the structure and species composition of an old-growth hemlock-hardwood forest

Salk, T. T., Frelich, L. E., Sugita, S., Calcote, R., Ferrari, J. B. & Montgomery, R. A., Jun 1 2011, In : Forest Ecology and Management. 261, 11, p. 1998-2006 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Acer saccharum subsp. saccharum
hardwood forests
Betula alleghaniensis
deer
sugar
34 Citations (Scopus)

The wave towards a new steady state: Effects of earthworm invasion on soil microbial functions

Eisenhauer, N., Schlaghamerský, J., Reich, P. B. & Frelich, L. E., Oct 1 2011, In : Biological Invasions. 13, 10, p. 2191-2196 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

earthworms
earthworm
soil
microbial biomass
breathing
19 Citations (Scopus)

Vegetation controls vary across space and spatial scale in a historic grassland-forest biome boundary

Danz, N. P., Reich, P. B., Frelich, L. E. & Niemi, G. J., Jun 1 2011, In : Ecography. 34, 3, p. 402-414 13 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

biome
grasslands
grassland
vegetation
ecosystems
2010
20 Citations (Scopus)
Satellite imagery
boreal forests
satellite imagery
boreal forest
wilderness
108 Citations (Scopus)

European buckthorn and Asian soybean aphid as components of an extensive invasional meltdown in North America

Heimpel, G. E., Frelich, L. E., Landis, D. A., Hopper, K. R., Hoelmer, K. A., Sezen, Z., Asplen, M. K. & Wu, K., Aug 24 2010, In : Biological Invasions. 12, 9, p. 2913-2931 19 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Aphis glycines
aphid
soybean
Rhamnus cathartica
Lumbricus terrestris
32 Citations (Scopus)

Tree rings detect earthworm invasions and their effects in northern hardwood forests

Larson, E. R., Kipfmueller, K., Hale, C. M., Frelich, L. E. & Reich, P. B., Jan 1 2010, In : Biological Invasions. 12, 5, p. 1053-1066 14 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

hardwood forests
growth rings
tree ring
earthworms
earthworm
2009
27 Citations (Scopus)

Patterns of plant community structure within and among primary and second-growth northern hardwood forest stands

Burton, J. I., Zenner, E. K., Frelich, L. E. & Cornett, M. W., Nov 10 2009, In : Forest Ecology and Management. 258, 11, p. 2556-2568 13 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

hardwood forests
forest stands
plant community
plant communities
community structure
69 Citations (Scopus)

Regional climate change adaptation strategies for biodiversity conservation in a midcontinental region of North America

Galatowitsch, S. M., Frelich, L. E. & Phillips-Mao, L., Oct 1 2009, In : Biological Conservation. 142, 10, p. 2012-2022 11 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

facilitation
regional climate
planning
climate change
biodiversity
24 Citations (Scopus)
wilderness area
invasive species
global warming
native species
deer
2008
62 Citations (Scopus)

Exotic earthworm effects on hardwood forest floor, nutrient availability and native plants: A mesocosm study

Hale, C. M., Frelich, L. E., Reich, P. B. & Pastor, J. J., Mar 1 2008, In : Oecologia. 155, 3, p. 509-518 10 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

mesocosm
hardwood forests
forest floor
nutrient availability
forest litter
7 Citations (Scopus)

Frost crack incidence in northern hardwood forests of the southern boreal-north temperate transition zone

Burton, J. I., Zenner, E. K. & Frelich, L. E., Sep 1 2008, In : Northern Journal of Applied Forestry. 25, 3, p. 133-138 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hardwoods
hardwood forests
frost
angle of incidence
transition zone
35 Citations (Scopus)

Litter decomposition in earthworm-invaded northern hardwood forests: Role of invasion degree and litter chemistry

Holdsworth, A. R., Frelich, L. E. & Reich, P. B., Dec 1 2008, In : Ecoscience. 15, 4, p. 536-544 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

hardwood forests
earthworms
earthworm
chemistry
litter
4 Citations (Scopus)

Moss harvest truncates the successional development of epiphytic bryophytes in the Pacific Northwest

Peck, J. L. E. & Frelich, L. E., Jan 1 2008, In : Ecological Applications. 18, 1, p. 146-158 13 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

bryophyte
moss
regrowth
epiphyte
chronosequence
12 Citations (Scopus)

Site factors affecting black ash ring growth in northern Minnesota

Benedict, M. A. & Frelich, L. E., May 15 2008, In : Forest Ecology and Management. 255, 8-9, p. 3489-3493 5 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Fraxinus nigra
growth rings
lowlands
ash
woodlands
2007
80 Citations (Scopus)

Effects of earthworm invasion on plant species richness in northern hardwood forests

Holdsworth, A. R., Frelich, L. E. & Reich, P. B., Aug 1 2007, In : Conservation Biology. 21, 4, p. 997-1008 12 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Lumbricus
Hardwoods
hardwood forests
earthworms
earthworm
68 Citations (Scopus)

Regional extent of an ecosystem engineer: Earthworm invasion in northern hardwood forests

Holdsworth, A. R., Frelich, L. E. & Reich, P. B., Sep 1 2007, In : Ecological Applications. 17, 6, p. 1666-1677 12 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

earthworm
ecosystem
transect
road
refugium
108 Citations (Scopus)

Wind-throw mortality in the southern boreal forest: Effects of species, diameter and stand age

Rich, R. L., Frelich, L. E. & Reich, P. B., Nov 1 2007, In : Journal of Ecology. 95, 6, p. 1261-1273 13 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

windthrow
boreal forests
boreal forest
mortality
disturbance
2006
158 Citations (Scopus)

Changes in hardwood forest understory plant communities in response to European earthworm invasions

Hale, C. M., Frelich, L. E. & Reich, P. B., Jan 1 2006, In : Ecology. 87, 7, p. 1637-1649 13 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

hardwood forests
earthworms
earthworm
understory
plant community
204 Citations (Scopus)

Earthworm invasion into previously earthworm-free temperate and boreal forests

Frelich, L. E., Hale, C. M., Scheu, S., Holdsworth, A. R., Heneghan, L., Bohlen, P. J. & Reich, P. B., Sep 1 2006, In : Biological Invasions. 8, 6, p. 1235-1245 11 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

temperate forests
temperate forest
boreal forests
earthworms
earthworm
2005
19 Citations (Scopus)

Controls and reference conditions in forestry: The role of old-growth and retrospective studies

Frelich, L. E., Cornett, M. W. & White, M. A., Oct 1 2005, In : Journal of Forestry. 103, 7, p. 339-344 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

retrospective studies
forestry
disturbance
primary forests
forest stands
148 Citations (Scopus)

Effects of European earthworm invasion on soil characteristics in Northern Hardwood Forests of Minnesota, USA

Hale, C. M., Frelich, L. E., Reich, P. B. & Pastor, J. J., Dec 1 2005, In : Ecosystems. 8, 8, p. 911-927 17 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hardwoods
hardwood forests
earthworms
earthworm
Biomass
134 Citations (Scopus)

Exotic European earthworm invasion dynamics in northern hardwood forests of Minnesota, USA

Hale, C. M., Frelich, L. E. & Reich, P. B., Jun 2005, In : Ecological Applications. 15, 3, p. 848-860 13 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

earthworm
forest floor
transect
farming system
transition zone
73 Citations (Scopus)

Pathways in old-field succession to white pine: Seed rain, shade, and climate effects

Dovčiak, M., Frelich, L. E. & Reich, P. B., Aug 2005, In : Ecological Monographs. 75, 3, p. 363-378 16 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

seed rain
old field
climate effect
forest edge
shade
2004
48 Citations (Scopus)
Lumbricidae
Great Lakes region
earthworms
earthworm
ash