A review of HPV and HBV vaccine hesitancy, intention and uptake in the era of social media and COVID-19

  • Emily K Vraga (Creator)
  • Sonya Brady (Creator)
  • Chloe Gansen (Creator)
  • Euna Mehnaz Khan (Creator)
  • Sarah Bennis (Creator)
  • Madalyn Nones (Creator)
  • Rongwei Tang (Creator)
  • Jaideep Srivastava (Creator)
  • Shalini Kulasingam (Creator)



Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, the World Health Organization named vaccine hesitancy as one of the top 10 threats to global health. The impact of hesitancy on uptake of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines was of particular concern, given the markedly lower uptake compared to other adolescent vaccines in some countries, notably the United States. With the recent approval of COVID-19 vaccines coupled with the widespread use of social media, concerns regarding vaccine hesitancy have grown. However, the association between COVID-related vaccine hesitancy and cancer vaccines such as HPV is unclear. To examine the potential association, we performed two reviews using Ovid Medline and APA PsychInfo. Our aim was to answer two questions: (1) Is COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, intention, or uptake associated with HPV or HBV vaccine hesitancy, intention, or uptake? and (2) Is exposure to COVID-19 vaccine misinformation on social media associated with HPV or HBV vaccine hesitancy, intention, or uptake? Our review identified few published empirical studies that addressed these questions. Our results highlight the urgent need for studies that can shift through the vast quantities of social media data to better understand the link between COVID-19 vaccine misinformation and disinformation and its impact on uptake of cancer vaccines.
Date made available2023

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